The spatial lag effects of bed load transport under unsteady flow conditions

Arie Setiadi Moerwanto


The recent rapid development on the computation speed and capacity of random access memory of personal computer has presented opportunities and challenges on the implementation of finite element method on the modelling of river morphology response under steady as well as unsteady flow conditions. As consequences, the temporal and spatial lag effects due to sudden changes in hydrodynamic conditions as well as the requirement to take numerical space steps that are shorter than the adaptation length of the alluvial system to adjust to the changes in hydrodynamic conditions must be well taken into account. This paper describes in detail the modelling method including testing of model performance in simulating particularly the spatial lag of alluvial system.


Spatial lag effect; finite element method; model performance


Bell, Robert G. (1980). Non-equilibrium bedload transport by steady and non-steady flows. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, PhD Thesis.

Bell, R.G. and A.J. Sutherland (1983). Non equilibrium of bed load transport by steady flow. Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol 109, No. 3, pp. 351-367.

Breusers, H.N.C. (1965). Conformity and time scale in two-dimensional local scour.

Jurnal Teknik Hidraulik, Vol. 1 No. 2, Desember 2010: 95 192

Publication No. 40, Delft Hydraulics Laboratory.

Cunge, J.A., F.M. Holly Jr. and A. Verwey (1980). Practical aspect of computational river hydraulics. Pitman

Publishing, Boston

Einstein, H.A. (1950). The bed-load function for sediment transportation in open channel flow. Technical Bulletin No. 1026, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Holly, F.M. Jr. and J.L. Rahuel (1990a). New numeri-cal/physical framework for mobile bed modelling, Part I Numerical and physical principles. Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 401- 416.

Johnson, J.W. (1942). The importance of side-wall friction in bed load investigations. Civil Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 329-331.

Phillips, B.C. (1984). Spatial and temporal lag effects in bedload sediment transport - Civil Engineering Research Report No. 84-10 - Reprint of PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury.

Phillips, B. C. and A. J. Sutherland (1989). Spatial lag effects in bed load sediment transport. Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 115-133.

Phillips, B. C. and A. J. Sutherland (1990). Temporal lag effects in bed load sediment transport. Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 5-23.

Rijn, L.C. van (1984b). Sediment pick-up functions. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 110, No. 10, pp. 1494-1502.

Singh, A.K., Kothyari, U.C. and Rangga Raju, K.G. (2004). Rapidly varying flows in alluvial rivers. Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 473-486.

Vanoni, V.A. and N.H. Brooks (1957). Laboratory studies of roughness and suspended load of alluvial streams. Sedimentation Laboratory Report No. E68, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Vries, M. de (1965). Considerations about non-steady bedload transport in open channels. Proceeding. of 11th Congress, IAHR, Leningrad, Vol. 3, Paper 3.8

Vries, M. de (1987). Morphological computations - Lecture Notes. Delft University of Technology, Delft.

Yalin, M.S. (1977). On the physical modelling of dunes. Proceedings of XVIIth Congress, IAHR, Baden-Baden, Vol. 1, Paper A4, pp. 25-32.

Yiniarti, E.K. (2008). Penelitian karakteristik blok beton terkunci Balok Kaki 6 dan penerapan untuk pengendalian gerusan local di Bendung Gerak Pamarayan. Pusat Litbang Sumber Daya Air.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Bintek SDA

Indexed by:
Direktorat Bina Teknik Sumber Daya Air, Direktorat Jenderal Sumber Daya Air, Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.