Global Transpiration Fraction Derived From Water Isotopologue Datasets

Samuel Jonson Sutanto


Transpirasi sebagai salah satu komponen dari evapo-transpirasi memberikan kontribusi aliran masa yang besar dari permukaan tanah. Banyak metode telah di aplikasikan untuk menghitung besarnya komponen-komponen evapotranspirasi ini. Sebagian besar kajian dilakukan pada skala lokal maupun regional dan hanya ada sedikit kajian yang menghitung besarnya transpirasi secara global. Transpirasi global yang dihitung baik dengan model maupun dengan teknik isotop menghasilkan nilai transpirasi yang rendah untuk model dan tinggi untuk teknik isotop dibandingkan dengan pengukuran. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa berapa nilai yang akurat dari transpirasi global masih merupakan tantangan. Oleh karena itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menghitung besarnya transpirasi global dan penguapan dari tanah dengan menggunakan teknik isotop yang datanya diambil dari hasil model GCM yang dilengkapi dengan modul isotop. Hasil perhitungan dengan teknik isotop nampak menjanjikan dengan nilai fraksi transpirasi sebesar 80% pada daerah yang ditumbuhi tanaman, and lebih rendah dari 50% pada daerah gurun. Fraksi transpirasi global dari hasil perhitungan adalah sebesar 69% dengan 43% air hujan yang jatuh menguap kembali ke atmosfer melalui transpirasi tanaman. Meskipun metode keseimbangan masa isotop dapat diaplikasikan ke TES satelit data, fraksi transpirasi yang dihasilkan masih menunjukkan adanya masalah pada resolusi data yang dihasilkan. Dengan adanya peningkatan resolusi satelit pada masa yang akan datang, perhitungan komponen-komponen evapo-transpirasi dengan menggunakan data isotop akan lebih akurat


Transpirasi, isotop, model GCM, keterbatasan metoda, prospek

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